Workplace Toxicity, Lateral Violence, Bullying, and the Role of the Leader

Question

Select three articles that discuss this topic (Workplace toxicity – lateral violence – bullying – and the role of the leader). Write annotated bibliography similar to the one you wrote before. Please note that the articles should be research – not opinion articles. The annotation of each article should be a maximum of 350 words and include an overview of the problem, research question(s), methodology, findings, and discussion. The paper should end with a paragraph summarizing what you have learned and with a reflection on how you might use this information as a leader.

Answer

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Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(2), 16-27.

This article is based on the view that bullying is a serious problem in the workplace and that its nature and causes need to be defined as clearly as possible. It is based on the view that understanding how bullying manifests itself in the workplace is a major step towards dealing with it. Against this backdrop, the paper sets out to examine the issue of bullying at work in terms of its nature and causes.

            The research questions that this article seeks to answer are (a) how does bullying manifest itself at work? (b) What are the causes of bullying at work?

            The methodology used entails a review of literature on the nature of bullying at work as well as its causes.

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            The paper’s main finding is that the way in which bullying is perceived depends on a number of factors, including single versus repeated acts, degree of unsolicited behavior, controllability of actions, degree of harm to the victim, and power differences between the victim and the offender.

            This article has far-reaching implications for future research. For instance, it highlights the need for the issue of predatory and dispute-related behavior to be accorded special attention in the literature on workplace bullying. The rationale for this suggestion is that it helps researchers widen the perspectives that are currently being used to investigate the problem. Similarly, the need for future research to investigate factors that influence the way victims perceive victimization and bullying has been highlighted in this paper. The argument being made in this case is that the way in which offenders, recipients, and observers perceive bullying is a critical part of problem-solving as far as this problem is concerned.

            By reading this article, I have learned that bullying occurs when aggressive behavior is subjected to a colleague over a long time, mostly by a fellow employee. I have also learned that in most cases, victims of bullying find it impossible to escape the situation or defend themselves, leading to severe psychological trauma. Thus, leaders must play a proactive role in discouraging employees from bullying their colleagues.

Georgakopoulos, A., Wilkin, L., Kent, B. (2011). Workplace Bullying: A Complex Problem in Contemporary Organizations. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(3), 1-20.

            The problem that this paper seeks to solve relates to the disturbing situation in the United States whereby organizations are yet to alleviate and in some cases even recognize the existence of workplace bullying. This is a serious problem because workplace bullies are responsible for annual losses amounting to billions of dollars for these organizations.

            The study was based on two research questions: (a) what are the negative of workplace bullying in contemporary organizations? (b) What are the possible solutions to the problem of workplace bullying?

            The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, whereby the choice of focus groups methodology was made. Computer-assisted methodology involving interpretive structural modeling was also used to collect and analyze data as well as interpret results.

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The study found that workplace bullying is being exacerbated by organizational cultures. This occurs because some leaders either fail to understand that workplace bullying means or simply dismiss it as a stringent way of managing people. Based on this finding, the authors conclude that organizations should use a systems approach to design a training program whose aim is to involve all individuals in addressing the causes of bullying and ways of dealing with it.

The most important to note in this article is that understanding workplace bullying is the most important step in the process of dealing with it. In organizations where bullying is non-existent, employees understand what bullying is and always seek ways of dealing with it.

The issues highlighted in this study has made me to realize that workplace bullying is more problematic than I thought. Moreover, the findings of the paper have enabled me to appreciate the role of leaders in creating an environment in which employees can identify and deal with workplace bullying whenever it arises.

Neuman, J. & Baron, R. (1998). Workplace Violence and Workplace Aggression: Evidence Concerning Specific Forms, Potential Causes, and Preferred Targets. Journal of Management, 24(3), 391-419.

            In this article, the authors express their reservations about the tendency by media reporters and some scholars to sensationalize extreme forms of workplace violence and aggression. They argue that giving too much attention to this issue makes it seem more problematic than it really is. However, they reiterate that milder forms of workplace aggression are a common occurrence that needs to be addressed.

This study set out to answer the following research questions: (a) what is the nature of workplace violence? (b) What are the causes of aggression in the workplace?(c) What are the various ways of preventing and controlling workplace aggression? (d) Where should future research go in regards, to workplace violence and aggression?

This paper adopts a qualitative approach to provide empirical evidence regarding the frequency with which work aggression and its various forms manifest itself in organizations. Based on this analysis, a theoretical framework through which the problem may be understood is offered.

            This study found that workplace violence is subject to some confusing issues that need to be clarified, for example, the specific forms of violence and aggression against employees. It also found that aggression in the workplace may be determined by social factors such as unfair treatment as well as personal determinants.

            This study has far-reaching implications for future research. For instance, it sets a precedent regarding the issues that need to be raised in relation to the frequency of workplace violence and aggression. Its theoretical implications are also worth highlighting; the study provides insights for the use of empirical evidence to provide a theoretical framework and model of workplace aggression.

            This study has enlightened me on the need to look at hard facts before making conclusions regarding the problem of violence and bullying in the workplace. I now know that leaders who fail to assess the workplace situation accurately as far as aggression is concerned may end up getting the wrong image of the problem, thereby increasing the chances of failure in the problem-solving process.

References

Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(2), 16-27.

Georgakopoulos, A., Wilkin, L., Kent, B. (2011). Workplace Bullying: A Complex Problem in Contemporary Organizations. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(3), 1-20.

Neuman, J. & Baron, R. (1998). Workplace Violence and Workplace Aggression: Evidence Concerning Specific Forms, Potential Causes, and Preferred Targets. Journal of Management,24(3), 391-419.

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