Leadership Studies Sample Paper


This is a 2 articles annotation (attached) . The annotation of each article should be in a separate section. Each section should include a maximum of 350 words and include an overview of the problem, research question(s), methodology, findings, and discussion. The paper should end with a paragraph summarizing what you have learned and with reflection on how you might use this information as a leader. Both of the attached articles discussed building trust and the role of the leader.


Annotated Bibliography

Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009)

The problem that this article seeks to solve relates to the tendency by school leaders to overemphasize elements of the division of labor, the hierarchy of authority, rules, regulations, and policies in efforts to establish a bureaucratic structure for handling the educational needs of students from diverse backgrounds. The main concern is that this phenomenon makes it difficult for professionalism to be cultivated in schools.


The two research questions guiding this study are (a) what is the principals’ professional orientation in the way they exercise administrative authority and how do they use it to extend adaptive discretion when addressing teachers about the way they conduct their work, and (b) what is the level of trust among administrators, teachers, students, and parents within the school community?

In terms of methodology, teachers from 80 middle schools completed surveys that yielded data on the independent variable (teacher professionalism) and four dependent variables, which included principals’ professional orientation, trust of faculty in their principals, trust of faculty in their colleagues, and faculty’s trust in their clients. The clients in this case are students and parents.

            The findings of the study showed that the degree of professionalism among teachers is related to both faculty trust and school leaders’ professional orientation. A strong relationship was also found to exist between the way faculty perceived colleagues’ professionalism and professional orientation of administrators during their exercise of authority. A similar relationship was identified in regards to the level of trust that faculty bestowed on the principal.

            These findings have far-reaching implications for the advancement of leadership in schools. They reveal that teacher professionalism needs to be protected rather than obliterated in leadership environments dominated by complex bureaucratic structures. To promote this ideal school administrators must display professional orientation whenever they seek to exercise their administrative authority. They must also use adaptive discretion when dealing with teachers.

            As a leader, I might use the information provided in this article to maintain professional orientation in leadership. This is because professional orientation in leadership propagates trust among followers while at the same time creating opportunities for the exercise of exercise administrative authority. 

Bartram, T. & Casimir, G. (2007)

            The problem under scrutiny in this paper is about the role of trust in a leader and empowerment in determining how transformational leadership connects with satisfaction with leaders and followers’ in-role performance. This paper presupposes that trust and empowerment play a mediating role in this relationship. The aim of the paper is to examine this mediating role.

            The two research questions for this study are (a) how do trust and empowerment relate to transformation leadership, and (b) how does trust and empowerment act as mediating factors in the relationship between satisfaction with leaders and followers’ in-role performance?


            The methodology for the study involved a leadership questionnaire that was filled out by 150 customer service staff in a call center based in Australia. A total of 109 responses were obtained and used as a sample in the analysis.

            The study’s findings revealed that trust in leaders and empowerment played a mediating role in the way transformational leadership affected followers’ in-role performance. Also, the findings showed partially mediating role of trust in a leader in the way transformational leadership affected satisfaction.

            This study is of great interest to leadership researchers because of the prevailing lack of clarity in the way different mediators affect different outcomes. This paper makes an important contribution in this debate particularly the practical implications of trust and empowerment in high standardized and formalized environment such as call centers.

            In this study, I have learned that the manner in which transformational leadership affects satisfaction with leaders and in-role performance can be mediated, at least partially, by two factors: trust in leaders and empowerment. I understand this to mean that if I were to become a transformational leader and wanted to promote satisfaction among my followers and to increase in-role performance, I would need to know how to incorporate elements of trust and empowerment in my leadership style.


Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering Teacher Professionalism in Schools: The Role of Leadership Orientation and Trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 217-247.

Bartram, T. & Casimir, G. (2007). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 4 – 19.

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